Events

Feb
6
Thu
2014
The Gut Microbiome: Health Improvment Beyond Energy Extraction
Feb 6 @ 12:00 pm – 1:00 pm

Image of Dr Rosa and John K Di Baise

Speaker(s): 
John K. Di Baise, M.D., Mayo Clinic, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Dr. Di Baise’s research interests relate to the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal motility and nutrition-related disorders. Specifically,he focuses on the clinical utility of tests used in the diagnosis of motility disorders and the treatment of gastroparesis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, irritable bowel syndrome and short bowel syndrome.

Dr. Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown is currently an assistant professor in the School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment and is part of the Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology in the Biodesign Institute.

Location: Biodesign Auditorium

Web Cast:

Date & Time: February 6th, 2014 12:00 p.m.

Title: The Gut Microbiome: Health Improvement Beyond Energy Extraction

Abstract: 
Over the last decade, there has been an explosion in interest in the human microbiome both from the scientific community and the general public. This interest has been driven, in part, by the development of tools for identifying and studying the composition and functional capacity of microbes that coexist with the human host. Our gut harbors a complex community of over 100 trillion microbes that influence our normal physiology, metabolism and immune function. Disruption of this gut microbiome has been linked with a number of gastrointestinal disorders, metabolic disorders and immune-mediated conditions. In this presentation, we will provide an overview of the human microbiome focusing on the gut microbiome. We will then highlight research on the potential role of the gut microbiome in the development of obesity while also briefly reviewing its potential influence in the area of cancer. Finally, we will consider the manipulation of the gut microbiota as a potential option to treat disease.

Thank you and if you have questions please contact Chevas Samuels! And don’t forget, coffee will be served!

Chevas Samuels, Center for the Convergence of Physical Science and Cancer Biology

Arizona State University | P.O. Box 871504 | Tempe, AZ 85287

(480) 965-0342 | Fax: (480) 965-6362

Feb
20
Thu
2014
Epigenetics at the Interface of Aging, Exposures and Cancer
Feb 20 @ 12:00 pm – 1:00 pm

issa-con

Speaker(s):
Jean-Pierre Issa, MD is Professor of Medicine and Director of Temple University School of Medicine’s Fels Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Biology. As principal investigator and project leader of several multi-million-dollar NIH/NCI-funded research projects, Dr. Issa has overseen ground-breaking studies. Particularly impressive are the important contributions his work has made to our understanding of epigenetics in the pathophysiology and treatment of cancer. His work has helped to reveal that different cancers arise along different molecular routes – predominantly genetic vs. predominantly epigenetic, an important concept in the pathophysiology of cancer. His focus on whole genome epigenetic studies has led to promising biomarkers for cancer detection, prognosis and prediction, and his proof-of-principle for epigenetic therapy of cancer is now standard of care in several types of leukemias.

Location:

Web Cast: Web Cast:

Date & Time: February 20th, 2014 12:00 p.m.

Title: Epigenetics At The Interface of Aging, Exposures and Cancer

Abstract:
The epigenome is reset during embryogenesis and matures around the end of development. Large scale genomic studies have now shown considerable proliferation dependent epigenome changes (drift) in aging cells (DNA methylation instability, chromatin instability). Comparison of rodent, primate and human aging shows that DNA methylation drift is conserved, depends primarily on chronologic age, and can be predicted to a certain degree by local genomic features (e.g. retrotransposons). It can therefore be argued that this epigenomic instability is a necessary result of the evolution of complex genomes that lack reprogramming capabilities in adult cells. Epigenetic drift creates gene expression variation in aging tissues that serve as an enabler of Darwinian evolution at the tissue level. Selective pressures result in cells with unique epigenetic programs that lead to diseases such as cancer or atherosclerosis. Importantly, epigenetic drift can be modulated by exposures (inflammation and perhaps diet), providing a mechanistic link between lifestyle and disease. In turn, epigenetic reprogramming could be useful for prevention and treatment of age-related pathology. In leukemias, reprogramming by DNA methylation inhibitors has gained acceptance as effective therapy for myeloid leukemias, and drugs for other epigenetic targets are rapidly proceeding towards clinical trials.

If you have questions please contact Chevas Samuels. Coffee will be served!

Chevas Samuels, Center for the Convergence of Physical Science and Cancer Biology

Arizona State University | P.O. Box 871504 | Tempe, AZ 85287

(480) 965-0342 | Fax: (480) 965-6362

Mar
6
Thu
2014
Exploring the Microbial World
Mar 6 @ 12:00 pm – 1:00 pm

t100_wolfe

Speaker(s):
Dr. Nathan Wolfe, founder and CEO of Global Viral Forecasting has degrees in human biology, biological anthropology, and immunology and infectious disease from Harvard University and Stanford University. He has been a professor of epidemiology at Johns Hopkins University and UCLA, and is now a visiting professor of human biology at Stanford in addition to directing Global Virus Forecasting.
Dr. Wolfe explores for harmful viruses in remote places and uses his field sites around the world as “listening posts” to try to intercept viruses before they spread widely. Many viruses, like HIV and influenza, jumped from animals to humans, so Dr. Wolfe works in villages whose inhabitants rely on wild game, or bushmeat, for protein. When hunters contact animal fluids during butchering, it makes them especially vulnerable to hosting new microbes. By collecting thousands of blood samples, hunters are important allies for studying emerging diseases.

Location: Biodesign Auditorium

Web Cast: View Event Online
NOTE: This web cast will be available only during the live stream presentation. It will not be posted later. We are sorry for any inconvenience.

Date & Time: March 6th, 2014 12:00 p.m.

Title: Exploring the Microbial World

Abstract:
Most of the diversity of life on earth is contained within the genomes of the planet’s microbes, including bacteria and particularly viruses, which infect every known form of cellular life on the planet. Arguably the most important biological realm for exploration is the microbial world on earth. Exploration within the microbial world has the potential to generate solutions to some of the major problems and mysteries on our planet, including the future of pandemics, the origins and causes of cancer, and the fundamental boundaries and limits of life. In this seminar, I will discuss contemporary exploration in the microbial world with particular emphasis on the activities done in my own research group on viral discovery and diversity.

Thank you and if you have questions please contact Chevas Samuels! And don’t forget, coffee will be served!

Chevas Samuels, Center for the Convergence of Physical Science and Cancer Biology

Arizona State University | P.O. Box 871504 | Tempe, AZ 85287

(480) 965-0342 | Fax: (480) 965-6362

Mar
20
Thu
2014
How Bacteria and Cancer Cells Regulate Mutagenesis and Their Ability to Evolve
Mar 20 @ 12:00 pm – 1:00 pm

Susan RosenbergFinal

Speaker(s):
Susan M Rosenberg, PhD, Ben F Love Chair in Cancer Research, Professor, Departments of Molecular and Human Genetics,
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and Molecular Virology and Microbiology. Dr. Rosenberg is also head of the Cancer Evolvability Program at The Dan L Duncan Cancer Center.

Title: How Bacteria and Cancer Cells Regulate Mutagenesis and Their Ability to Evolve

Webcast:

Abstract:
Our concept of a stable genome is changing from one in which the DNA sequence is passed faithfully from generation to generation to another in which genomes are plastic and responsive to environmental changes. Growing evidence shows that environmental stresses induce mechanisms of genomic instability in bacteria, yeast, and human cells, generating occasional fitter mutants and potentially accelerating evolution and disease. The emerging molecular mechanisms of stress-inducible mutagenesis vary but share telling common components that underscore two common themes of the non-randomness of mutation: (1) regulation of mutagenesis in time by cellular stress responses, which promote mutations specifically when cells are poorly adapted to their environments—i.e., when they are stressed; (2) restriction of mutagenesis in genomic space causing mutation hotspots, clusters and showers. Mutational hot-spotting may target specific genomic regions and allow local concerted evolution (adaptive evolution requiring multiple mutations). This talk will focus on a molecular mechanism of stress-induced mutation in E. coli and note its parallels in other organisms including human cancer. The mechanism is a stress-response-orchestrated switch to error-prone repair of DNA breaks. We consider its regulation by stress responses, demonstrate its formation of mutation hotspots near DNA breaks, and report our discovery of a large gene network that underlies mutagenic repair of DNA breaks, more than half of which functions in stress sensing and signaling. The data show the importance of stress-response control and also that biological functions of large fractions of networks can be understood when molecular mechanisms are considered and functional studies employed. Regulation of mutagenesis in time and genomic space is widespread in many organisms and circumstances. Such mechanisms may fuel biological evolution and genetic disease, including pathogen-host adaptation and drug resistance and tumor and other disease progression and resistance mechanisms, much of which occurs under stress, driven by mutations.

Dr. Rosenberg’s research interests include Genome Instability in Evolution, Antibiotic Resistance, Cancer, Stress-Induced Mutagenesis, Antibiotic-Resistance Mutation, Spontaneous DNA Damage and From Bacteria to Humans: Genomic-Caretaker Proteins and Cancer.

Location:
View Event Online

If you have questions please contact Chevas Samuels. And don’t forget, coffee will be served. Thank you.

Chevas Samuels, Center for the Convergence of Physical Science and Cancer Biology

Arizona State University | P.O. Box 871504 | Tempe, AZ 85287

(480) 965-0342 | Fax: (480) 965-6362

Mar
24
Mon
2014
Challenging the Dogma: A New View of the Genomic Programming of Complex Organisms
Mar 24 @ 12:30 pm – 1:30 pm

john_mattick photo

Speaker(s):
Dr. John S. Mattick is the Director of The Garvan Institute of Medical Research in Sydney, Australia.After completing his undergraduate and postgraduate studies at the University of Sydney and Monash University in 1977, he undertook postdoctoral training at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas. In 1982 he returned to Australia to work at the CSIRO Division of Molecular Biology in Sydney, and in 1988 moved to the University of Queensland in Brisbane, where he was the Foundation Professor of Molecular Biology, and Foundation Director, ARC Federation Fellow and then NHMRC Australia Fellow at the Institute for Molecular Bioscience.
Professor Mattick has served on councils, advisory boards and committees of a number of research and funding organisations, including Genome Canada, the Wellcome Trust, the Human Frontier Science Program, the National Health & Medical Research Council, and the Human Genome Organisation.
Over the past 20 years he has pioneered a new view of the genetic programming of humans and other complex organisms, by showing that the majority of the genome, previously considered ‘junk’, actually specifies a dynamic network of regulatory RNAs that guide differentiation and development. He has published over 250 research articles and his work has received coverage in Nature, Science, Scientific American, New Scientist and the New York Times, among others.

Location: Biodesign Auditorium

View Event Online:

Date & Time: March 24, 2014 12:30 p.m.

Title:Challenging the Dogma: A New View of the Genomic Programming of Complex Organisms

Apr
17
Thu
2014
Cracking The Bioelectric Code: Taming the Voltage-Based Language Of Cells to Re-grow Whole Organs and Normalize Cancer
Apr 17 @ 12:00 pm – 1:00 pm

levin

Speaker: Mike Levin is the Director of Tufts Center for Regenerative and Developmental Biology, focusing on morphological and behavioral information processing in living systems

Location: Biodesign Auditorium

Web Cast: THERE WILL NOT BE VIDEO AVAILABLE FOR THIS LECTURE

Date & Time: April 17th, 2014 12:00 p.m.

Title: Cracking the Bioelectric Code: Taming the Voltage-Based Language of Cells to Re-grow Whole Organs and Normalize Cancer. 

Abstract:
Many species of complex animals are able to regenerate entire organs. Our lab studies show that electric gradients control cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation, while bioelectrical signals serve as master regulators of tissue patterning. Molecular-level changes in bioelectric state can initiate complete development of eyes, brains, hearts, limbs, and spinal cords, as well as normalize neoplastic growth. Genetics and bioelectricity thus constitute parallel but interacting layers of biological control, a discovery with sweeping implications for cancer management, regenerative medicine, synthetic biology and bioengineering.

 

If you have questions please contact Chevas Samuels! And don’t forget, coffee will be served!

Chevas Samuels, Center for the Convergence of Physical Science and Cancer Biology

Arizona State University | P.O. Box 871504 | Tempe, AZ 85287

(480) 965-0342 | Fax: (480) 965-6362

May
1
Thu
2014
Rare Events with Large-Impact: Bioengineering & Clinical Applications of Circulating Tumor Cells
May 1 @ 12:00 pm – 1:00 pm

mehmettoner

Speaker(s):
Mehmet Toner, PhD is Professor of Surgery (Biomedical Engineering) at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, and is the founding director of the NIH BioMEMS Resource Center. Dr. Toner is internationally recognized for his multidisciplinary approach to biomedical problems in the areas of low-temperature biology and biostabilization, tissue engineering and artificial organs, and microsystems bioengineering in clinical medicine and biology.

Location: Biodesign Auditorium

View Event Online:

Date & Time: May 1st, 2014 12:00 p.m.

Title: Rare Events with Large-Impact: Bioengineering & Clinical Applications of Circulating Tumor Cells

Abstract:
Viable tumor-derived circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been identified in peripheral blood from cancer patients and are probably the origin of intractable metastatic disease. However, the ability to isolate CTCs has proven to be difficult due to the exceedingly low frequency of CTCs in circulation. We introduced several microfluidic methods to improve the sensitivity of rare event CTC isolation, a strategy that is particularly attractive because it can lead to efficient purification of viable CTCs from unprocessed whole blood. The micropost CTC-Chip (μpCTC-Chip) relies on laminar flow of blood cells through anti-EpCAM antibody-coated microposts, whereas the herringbone CTC-Chip (HbCTC-Chip) uses micro-vortices generated by herringbone-shaped grooves to efficiently direct cells toward antibody-coated surfaces. These antigen-dependent CTC isolation approaches led to the development of a third technology, which is tumor marker free (or antigen-independent) sorting of CTCs. We call this integrated microfluidic system the CTC-iChip, based on the inertial focusing strategy, which allows positioning of cells in a near-single file line, such that they can be precisely deflected using minimal magnetic force. We applied these three microfluidic platforms to blood samples obtained from lung, prostate, breast, colon, melanoma, and pancreatic cancer patients. We isolated CTCs from patients with metastatic non-small-cell-lung cancer and identified the EGFR activating mutation in CTCs. We also detected the T790M mutation, which confers drug resistance. We also applied microchip to isolate CTCs from blood specimens of patients with either metastatic or localized prostate cancer, and showed the presence of CTCs in early disease. Remarkably, the low shear design of the HBCTC-chip revealed micro-clusters of CTCs in a subset of patient samples. Microscopic CTC aggregates may contribute to the hematogenous dissemination of cancer. More recently, we used microfluidic capture of CTCs to measure androgen receptor (AR) signaling readouts before and after therapeutic interventions using single-cell immunofluorescence analysis of CTCs. The results support the relevance of CTCs as dynamic tumor-derived biomarkers, reflecting “real time” effects of cancer drugs on their therapeutic targets, and the potential of CTC signaling analysis to identify the early emergence of resistance to therapy. We also characterized epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in CTCs from breast cancer patients. While a few primary tumor cells simultaneously expressed mesenchymal and epithelial markers, mesenchymal cells were highly enriched in CTCs, and most importantly, serial CTC monitoring suggested an association of mesenchymal CTCs with disease progression suggesting a role for EMT in the blood-borne dissemination of human breast cancer. This presentation will share our integrated strategy to simultaneously advance the engineering and microfluidics of CTC-Chip development, the biology of these rare cells, and the potential clinical applications of circulating tumor cells.

If you have questions please contact Chevas Samuels. Coffee will be served!

Chevas Samuels, Center for the Convergence of Physical Science and Cancer Biology

Arizona State University | P.O. Box 871504 | Tempe, AZ 85287

(480) 965-0342 | Fax: (480) 965-6362