Knowing how tumors evolve would be very useful to clinicians trying to predict the spread of cancer and the likely success of different therapies.  New mathematical models developed by Robert Noble and his colleagues should help.  In this major research paper (published in Nature Ecology and Evolution, 23 Dec 2021) they created mathematical models of 4 different types of places in the body where tumors begin.  They were able to show that the way in which tumors evolve depends on where they start out – the ‘architecture’ of the environment.